Abstract zusammenfassung

07.06.2021 21:17
Abstract meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary

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Self-esteem Effects on self-esteem were considered in three reviews. Methods, systematic review of reviews undertaken to answer the question What is the evidence for health and well-being effects of screentime in children and adolescents (CYP)? We found no consistent evidence of health benefits from screentime. Findings of significantly shorter total sleep time with greater mobile device screentime were reported in 10/12 studies, with 5/5 reporting greater subjective day-time tiredness or sleepiness. However, we did identify moderate evidence that screentime was associated with higher intake of energy dense foods, which unlikely to be mediated by sedentariness. This association is for overall screentime but there is very limited evidence from only one review for an association with social media screentime. Anxiety, depression and internalising problems Only Hoare et al 20 reported on associations with anxiety, and found moderate evidence for a positive association between screentime duration and severity of anxiety symptoms. There was no or insufficient evidence for an association of screentime with eating disorders or suicidal ideation, individual cardiovascular risk factors, asthma prevalence or pain.

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RoR are necessarily limited to including primary studies which have been included in systematic reviews and are thus necessarily limited in addressing very new developments. Part II: Proposal Towards Consolidated Standards of Reporting Quantitative Benefit-Risk Models Applied to Vaccines (brivac) 26 bias: Transparent reporting of biomedical image analysis challenges 27 Minimum information about clinical artificial intelligence modeling: the MI-claim checklist 28 STrengthening the Reporting Of Pharmacogenetic. Others have pointed out similar limitations in the literature on screen use and violence 7 and that educational use of screens is promoted in many educational systems. Translator tool What is the pronunciation of abstract? A Practical Guide for Researchers and Clinicians 269 Collaborative Approach to Meta Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (camarades) 270 Publication of population data for forensic purposes 271 Publication of population data of linearly inherited DNA. We therefore undertook an RoR of the effects of screentime of any type on CYP health and well-being outcomes.

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Hrqol as a formal measured construct was examined by Wu et al, 22 who reported consistent evidence that greater screentime was associated with lower measured hrqol in 11/13 cross-sectional and 4/4 longitudinal studies. However, there is no strong evidence for a particular threshold in hours of screentime. Hoare et al concluded there was moderate evidence for a relationship between low self-esteem and screentime. Evidence was stronger among infants, where LeBlanc et al concluded that there was moderate-quality evidence that television screentime elicited no benefits and was harmful to cognitive development. Improve your vocabulary with English Vocabulary in Use from Cambridge. Evaluation of quality The quality of systematic reviews including risk of bias was assessed using the adapted version of Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (amstar). Medium-quality reviews were required to have: searched at least one database; listed and described included studies; documented the quality of the included studies and synthesised study findings narratively or statistically. Carson et al reported that this association was not considered in longitudinal studies but that in cross-sectional studies, lower self-esteem was associated with screentime in 2/2 studies and with computer screentime in 3/5 studies, and no clear evidence for mobile-phone screentime. Studies with a wider age range which provided data on children/adolescents separately were eligible.

Effects of screentime on the health and well-being

From the Cambridge English Corpus What is needed is one big "class-like" thing that abstracts over all the types s, r and m, and all their operations at once. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different. We describe findings by domain below. In meta-analysis across six studies (n3881 they did not identify a significant relationship, with the OR for  2 hours screentime1.20 (95 CI.91.59  p0.20; I237). However, we identified no strong evidence for a threshold in hours of screentime for adiposity and only weak evidence for a threshold of 2 hours daily screentime for the associations with depressive symptoms and with hrqol.

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Furthermore, the concept of screen time itself is simplistic and arguably meaningless, and the focus on the amount of screen use is unhelpful." 12 They pointed out that research has focused on counting the quantity of screentime rather than. From the Cambridge English Corpus See all examples of abstract These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. In a medium-quality review, Costigan et al reported a positive association between screentime and sleep problems in 2/2 studies. Screentime may act through use while sedentary (ie, displacing physical activity) or through more direct effects. In our narrative synthesis of findings, we aimed to avoid vote-counting of numbers of positive or negative studies to judge strength of evidence. In this we aimed to minimise so-called vote-counting, that is, not quantifying the number of studies reporting positive and negative findings regardless of their size and quality.

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In a medium-quality review, Carson et al reported that an association between a clustered risk factor score and television screentime was reported in 2/2 longitudinal studies and 6/10 cross-sectional studies. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (moose) group 387 Meta-analysis of individual participant data: rationale, conduct, and reporting 388 prisma-Equity 2012 Extension: Reporting Guidelines for Systematic Reviews with a Focus on Health Equity 3 for Abstracts: Reporting Systematic Reviews. Copyright information: Author(s) (or their employer(s) 2019. Computer, video, mobile or other screentime Data on other forms of screentime were very sparse. Data on mobile screen use were particularly limited in our included reviews. Equator resources in, german, portuguese, spanish, navigate this website. Similarly, Hoare et al reported strong evidence for a positive relationship between depressive symptomatology and screentime based on mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Quality of reviews was assessed and strength of evidence across reviews evaluated. Any potential limits on screentime must be considered in the light of a lack of understanding of the impact of the content or contexts of digital screen use.

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Data synthesis and summary measures Synthesis began by summarising review results and conclusions in note form. Quality of included reviews was predominantly moderate or low, dominated by studies of television screentime, with screentime largely self-reported. The proportion of studies in each review that were also included in other reviews ranged from 0. Want to learn more? These data broadly support policy action to limit screen use by CYP because of evidence of health harms across a broad range of domains of physical and mental health. Methods We undertook a systematic review of published systematic reviews, reporting methods and findings using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. In low-quality reviews, Duch et al reported there was inconclusive evidence for an association between screentime and sleep duration. In cross-sectional studies, positive associations were reported for television screentime (4/6 studies computer use (3/5 studies) and video game screentime (3/4 studies). We made no attempt to quantitatively summarise findings across reviews as quantitative summaries should be undertaken at individual study level rather than at review level.

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Mental health and well-being were also the subject of a number of reviews. Adjustment for physical activity or diet did not materially change findings. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. Adjustment for physical activity Suchert et al reported that 11 included studies examined the association between screentime and mental health adjusted for physical activity. Costigan et al reported a negative association between screentime and perceived health in 4/4 studies. Reviews also largely failed to consider the processes by which screentime impacted on health outcomes.

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From the Cambridge English Corpus A core set of features could be abstracted for particular domains, which could then be extended by a programmer. Used assessment of review quality and weight of supportive evidence to assign strength of evidence to findings. We found weak evidence that small amounts of daily screen use is not harmful and may have some benefits. Anaphylaxis as a case study 236 Definitions, methodological and statistical issues for phase 3 clinical trials in chronic myeloid leukemia: a proposal by the European LeukemiaNet 237 A new standardized format for reporting hearing outcome in clinical trials 238 A consensus. Tremblay et al 10 reported a moderate association between television screetime and adiposity measures, identified in 94/119 cross-sectional studies and 19/28 longitudinal studies. Overlap in included studies between reviews was generally low, suggesting that findings were not dominated by small numbers of individual studies. In medium-quality reviews, Carson et al reported that unfavourable adiposity measures were associated with computer screentime in 3/4 studies but in 0/2 case-control studies and that findings in cross-sectional studies were highly inconsistent; Carson et al identified no evidence for an association.

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A limitation of reviews or reviews including our own is the necessary time lag for inclusion of primary studies in systematic reviews, meaning that they may not represent the most contemporary research. See rights and permissions. Hinweis zur Verwendung von Cookies, diese Website verwendet Cookies in bereinstimmung mit unserer. We excluded reviews in which screentime was not defined adequately or where time on screens was not separated from other forms of sedentary behaviour, for example, sitting while talking/homework/reading, time spent in a car, etc. From the Cambridge English Corpus The pointer chasing could be abstracted over different monads, and reused with multiple data structures representing different kinds of terms. From the Cambridge English Corpus From any concrete social or political situation, a large and possibly infinite number of different ideal constructs can be abstracted. Cambridge University Press) abstract, business English existing as an idea, feeling, or quality, not as a material object : "Satisfaction" is difficult to measure as it is an abstract concept. Where reviews examined overall sedentary behaviour but reported findings for screentime separately to other forms of sedentary behaviour, these were included.

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